THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY The National Geographic Society, which conducted the explorations described in this volume, was organized and incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia, January 27, 1888, for "the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge." The Society accomplishes its object: 1. By the publication of maps, books, and an illustrated monthly magazine, which contains about 1600 pages per year. All receipts from its publications are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. 2. By the encouragement of geographic science and exploration by means of such financial grants as its resources will permit. The Society has just concluded a series of investigations, extending over three years, of the glaciers of Alaska, one of the most important fields of geographical research in America. The results are given in this volume. In co5peration with Yale University it has for several years maintained a large expedition in Peru, making geographical, geological and archaeological investigations around Cuzco, in a region which is generally believed to have been the birthplace of the famous and little-known Inca race. It also had an expedition in Alaska investigating the recent eruption of Mount Katmai, this study being preliminary to a comprehensive investigation of what is, perhaps, the most stupendous volcanic belt on the earth. Its earlier expeditions to Alaska did much pioneer work in the exploration of that territory. In 1902 the Society sent an expedition to Mount Pel6e and La Soufrie^re to study the terrible eruptions of these volcanoes. The Society has assisted various Arctic expeditions, notably the last expedition of Robert E. Peary, which discovered the North Pole, April 6, 1909. In 1909 it sent to Sicily a trained geologist to investigate the Messina earthquake. A popular account of all expeditions is printed in the Magazine, while the technical results appear in separate monographs published by the Society. 8. By an annual series of addresses at the National Capital. During the past several years the Society's program has included President Taft; President Roosevelt; Secretary of State Bryan; Colonel George W. Goethals, Chief Engineer Panama Canal; Sir Harry Johnston; Sir Ernest H. Shackleton; Viscount James Bryce; President Charles W. Eliot, of Harvard University; GifEord Pinchot; Robert E. Peary; Roald Amundsen; Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell; Sir Francis Younghusband. 4. By the maintenance of a geographic library at its headquarters in Washington. 5. By the award of gold medals. The Society has many thousands of members distributed throughout every State in the Union, and in every foreign country. It has members in 16,000 towns and villages in the United States and in foreign lands. The membership fee is $2 per g.mnim with no entrance fee. Life membership fee is $50. All members receive the Magazine and maps published by the Society during the term of membership. CARNEGIE OF TEQiivGUVi'